Goethe’s Theory of Colours provided the first systematic study of the physiological effects of color (1810). His observations on the effect of opposed colors led him to a symmetric arrangement of his color wheel, “for the colours diametrically opposed to each other… are those that reciprocally evoke each other in the eye. Unlike his contemporaries, Goethe didn’t see darkness as an absence of light, colour resulted from this interaction of light and shadow. For Goethe, light is “the simplest most undivided most homogenous being that we know. Confronting it is the darkness”.

Goethe (1749 – 1832)
Theory of Colours
Zur Farbenlehre